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Thursday, June 27, 2013

Bahasa Indonesia’s Indian Connection

Indonesia as country has seen it being influenced by many religions, races and countries. History shows us that connection with India, Holland, China, Australia and Arab countries. This inter-cultural exchange has had a great impact on Bahasa – the national language of Indonesia, which has borrowed many words into its language from Arabic, Hindi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Chinese, Japanese, Dutch, Portuguese and the many Austronesian languages.

I knew about this even before I came to Indonesia, but my cousin wanted me to note down all the various Indian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Tamil, Urdu) words that I came across in my 2 months here in Indonesia. Today, Islam is a major religion of Indonesia, but once upon a time, it used to be Hinduism and hence Sanskrit (Samsakrutha in Bahasa) has had a great impact in today’s Bahasa. The name Bahasa in itself comes from the Indian word Bhasha, meaning language.

Below is a list of words that I have come across in Bahasa Indonesia with their meanings and related Indian word. I hope all the Indian readers will find this Indian connection very interesting. The thing to note is that some Indian words have also been borrowed from Arabic. Hence, the words that I might categorize as Indian can have an Arabic root. Many Hindi and Tamil words might have an original root in Sanskrit.

Word in Bahasa Meaning in Bahasa Original Indian Word Indian Language
Bahasa Language Bhasha Hindi
Utara North Uttar Hindi
Asli Original, Pure Asli Hindi
Masjid Mosque Masjid Hindi
Apam Kind of cake Apam Tamil
Kapal Boat/Ship Kappal Tamil
Kuil Temple Koil Tamil
Mangga Mango Manga Tamil
Roti Bread Rotti Tamil
Topi Hat Topi/Toppi Hindi/Tamil
Yudha War, Battle Yuddha Sanskrit
Warna Colour varna Sanskrit
Warta News varta Sanskrit
Akhir End Akhir Urdu
Badan Body Badan Hindi
Dunia World Dunia Hindi
Fakir Poor People Fakir Hindi/Urdu
Hewan Animal Haywan Hindi
Halal Religiously Lawful Halal Hindi
Haram Religiously Unlawful Haraam Hindi
Jahanam Cursed, Damned Jahannam – hell Hindi
Jail Prank Jahil – Ignorant Hindi
Kitab Book Kitab Hindi
Korban sacrifice Qurban Hindi/Urdu
Kursi Chair Kursi Hindi
Maaf Sorry, to apologize Maafi Hindi
Maksud Purpose Maqsood Hindi/Urdu
Maut Death Maut Hindi
Menara Tower Minar Hindi
Mungkin Maybe Mungkin Hindi
Musim season Mausam Hindi
Nikah Marriage Nikah Urdu
Sabar Patience Sabarr Hindi
Sabun Soap Sabun Hindi
Sehat Healthy Sehat, - health Hindi
Selamat Safe, Well being Salamat Hindi
Waktu Time Wakt Hindi
Anggur Grapes Angur Hindi
Pahlawan Hero Pehalwan, - strong person Hindi
Pasar Market/Bazaar Bazaar Hindi
Piala Cup Pyala Hindi
Medan Field Maidan Hindi
Takhta Throne Takht Hindi
Kedai Food Stall Kadai Tamil
Agama Religion Agama – Vedic principles Sanskrit
Aneka Multifarious Anek Hindi
Anggota Limb Angh Hindi
Angkara Insolence Aham Kara – Ego, prideta Sanskrit, Tamil
Angka Numerical Figure Anka Sanskrit
Angkasa Sky Akash Hindi
Alpa Negligent Alpa Sanskrit, Tamil
Antara Among, in Between Antar Hindi
Anugerah Honour, Award Anugraham Tamil
Raja King Raja Hindi
Putera Son Putirran Tamil
Putri Daughter Puttiri Tamil
Bakti Devotion Bhakti Tamil
Sakti Magic Shakti – Strength Hindi, Tamil
Suami Husband Swamy Tamil
Istri Wife Istri Tamil
Bumi Earth Bhumi Hindi
Jendela Window Jannal Tamil
Dua Two Do Hindi
Tiga Three Teen Hindi
Sastra Literature Shastra Sanskrit
Tirai Curtain Tirai Tamil
Sate Satay Catai Tamil
Kolam Pond Kulam Tamil
Kera Monkey Korunggu Tamil
Kari Curry Kari Tamil
Jaya Victorious Jeyam Tamil
Jiwa Soul Jeevan Tamil
Ganja Marijuana Kanja Tamil
Gajah Elephant Gajam Tamil
Dirgahayu Longevity Dirgayu Tamil
Desa Village Desam Tamil
Derma Charity Dharmam Tamil
Denda Fine Dhandam Tamil
Catur Chess Caturanggam Tamil
Candu Opium Candu Tamil
Bayu Wind Vayu Tamil
Bahaya Hazard Abayam Tamil
Alun Wave Alai Tamil
Kamar Room Kamra Hindi
Aniaya Abuse, Injustice Anyay Hindi
Asrama Dormitory Ashram Hindi
Ayah Father Ayya Tamil
Bahagia Lucky, Blessed Bhagya Hindi
Bahu Shoulder Bahu – arms Sanskrit
Barat West Bharat, India – located west of Indonesia Sanskrit
Basmi Destroy Bhasmam Tamil
Kabar News Khabar Hindi
Biasa Habitual Abhya sa Sanskrit
Biji Seed Bija Hindi
Binasa Death, destroyed Vinash Hindi
Bisa Venom Vesam Tamil
Bijaksana Wisdom Vicakshana Sanskrit
Budiman Wise Buddhiman Hindi
Cakra Disk, Sphere Chakram Tamil
Candi Temple Candika – another manifestation of Durga as goddess of death Sanskrit
Chandra Moon, Lunar Chandra – Hindu Moon God Sanskrit
Citra Image Chitra Hindi
Dana Donation, Funds Dhana Sanskrit
Dasawarsa Decade Dasa Varsha Sanskrit
Dewa God Deva Sanskrit
Dewi Goddess Devi Sanskrit
Duka Sadness Dukh Hindi
Gapura Gate Gopuram Tamil
Guru Teacher Guru Tamil, Hindi
Jelma Incarnation Janma – Birth Sanskrit
Karunia Blessing Karuna Sanskrit
Keluarga Family Kula-varga Sanskrit
Kumba Pot Kumbha Sanskrit
Lawang Cinnamon Lavanga Sanskrit
Rani Queen Rani Hindi
Siswa College Student Shishya Hindi
Menteri Minister Mantri Hindi
Mitra Partner Mitra Hindi
Nama Name Naam Hindi
Negara Country Nagara Sanskrit
Negeri City Negeri Sanskrit
Neraka Hell Narakam Tamil
Nirwana An ideal condition of harmony or joy Nirvana Sanskrit
Puasa Fasting Upawas Hindi
Pustakadi Book Pustak Hindi
Rahasia Secret Rahasya Hindi
Raksasa Monster Rakshsam Tamil
Ratna Gemstone Ratnam Tamil
Rupa Appearance Roop Hindi
Samudra Ocean Samudra Hindi
Sakti Powerful Shakti Hindi
Senopati General, Military Leader Senapati Hindi
Singa Lion Singha Sanskrit
Surya Sun Surya Hindi
Suka Like Sukh Hindi
Upacara Ceremony Uppakara Sanskrit
Wahana Vehicle Vahana Sanskrit

I am sure there are many other words in Bahasa Indonesia with a similar Indian connection. Either I have not come across those words or haven’t been able to connect the dots.

If you are more keen on finding the connection, you can start with this wikipedia article and then the rest of the internet.



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